Working as a Chef or Cook
Chefs can hold a variety of titles including executive chef, sous-chef, specialty chef.
Working as an Executive chef you will perform some or all of the following duties:
- Manage the kitchen
- Plan menus and ensure food quality standards
- Kitchen equipment purchases and repairs, food ordering, hiring staff
- Supervise activities of sous-chefs, specialist chefs, chefs and cooks
- May prepare food on a regular basis, depending on size of kitchen
Working as a Sous-chef you will perform some or all of the following duties:
- Plan menus and order food and kitchen supplies
- Prepare and cook meals or specialty foods.
- Supervise kitchen staff
- Demonstrate new cooking techniques and new equipment to cooking staff
Working as a Chef and specialist chef you will perform the following duties:
- Prepare and cook complete meals or specialty foods
- Instruct cooks in preparation, cooking, garnishing and presentation of food
- Create new recipes
- Supervise cooks and other kitchen staff
- May plan menus and order food
Working as a Cook you will perform some or all of the following duties:
- Prepare and cook complete meals or dishes as instructed by chef
- Schedule and supervise kitchen helpers
- Maintain inventory and records of food, supplies and equipment
- Keep kitchen and cooking equipment clean
- May hire and train kitchen staff
Chefs and cooks work mainly in the food service industry. Industry sources report that the food services industry is experiencing staff shortages. It is anticipated that the province of BC will require many new workers in this sector over the next decade.
The expanding market for good value and high-quality dining experiences will create demand for a wider range of skills for chefs and cooks. Those who specialize in preparing ethnic cuisine or special dishes may have an advantage over others seeking employment.
Employment may be seasonal, as many jobs are dependent on the tourism industry.
Job Outlook in BC
Chefs (NOC 6321)
Chart from WorkBC
Cooks (NOC 6322)
Chart from WorkBC
The Employment Outlook for BC 2007-2017 provides job openings projections for cooks and chefs within BC regions:
|Avg Annual % Change, 5 Years, 2010 to 2015|
|Vancouver Island / Coast|
|North Coast & Nechako|
Source: Regional Employment Projections, BC Stats. Projections for development regions [accessed October 2014]
You can learn more about working as a chef or cook in BC from:
Types of Employers
Chefs and cooks are employed by restaurants, hotels and resorts, hospitals, cruise ships, educational institutions, catering companies and a wide range of other establishments. The Accommodation and Food Services industry is top sector of employment for chefs (82%) and cooks (78%). These establishments include restaurants, cafeterias, delicatessens, catering businesses, pubs, bars and night clubs.
Source: Career Cruising database (Profile for “Cook”).
In BC the average annual salary for chefs and cooks is between $11,000 and $44,000.
Chefs: The pay for chefs varies a great deal and depends mostly on experience, reputation, and whether the chef works part-time or full-time. Estimates of Canadian chefs’ average income range from about $35,000 to $40,000 a year. Entry-level chefs may earn little more than minimum wage, while experienced chefs who work full-time can make up to $75,000 a year. Experienced chefs, and those who own their own restaurants, can earn more.
Cooks: The income for cooks varies widely. Factors affecting earnings include training and experience, employer, geographic location, and whether or not they are unionized. Union members have their wages and benefits negotiated on their behalf by union representatives. Cooks who work in large institutional settings such as hospitals, schools, and colleges are usually unionized.
Source: Career Cruising
Job Bank Canada, Wages Report provides hourly wages for Chefs (NOC 6321) in BC Regions:
Source: Job Bank Canada
Job Bank Canada, Wages Report provides hourly wages for Cooks (NOC 6322) in BC Regions:
Source: Job Bank Canada
Working hours vary depending on the type of establishment. Your work hours may include early mornings, late evenings, holidays and weekends. Work varies between part-time and full-time hours. Chefs and Cooks who work in hospitals, schools, and other such institutions are more likely to have regular working hours. Resorts usually offer seasonal employment only.
Source: Work BC, (Search Chefs OR Cooks)
Chefs may work lunch or dinner shifts, or both. A single shift (either lunch or dinner) may last between 5 and 7 hours, while a double shift (both lunch and dinner) may last 12 hours or more.
Cooks work shifts, including evenings, weekends, and holidays. Depending on their place of employment, they may be under a great deal of pressure to produce food quickly. The number of hours worked each week varies widely among cooks. Part-time may be as little as 5 or 6 hours a week, while busy full-time cooks may work up to (and sometimes more than) 50 hours a week.
Source: Career Cruising
Skills, Education and Experience
Skills for Chefs
- must be creative and have a good sense of timing
- detail-oriented when it involves food preparation and presentation
- excellent communication, good managerial skills
- ability to motivate staff
- need a great deal of cooperation and teamwork abilities
Skills for Cooks
- well organized and able to work under pressure
- enjoy working with their hands and have an interest in preparing food
- have strong communication and teamwork skills
Education and Experience for Chefs
Chefs and Cooks do not require certification to work in BC but employers tend to prefer hiring those who are certified.
There are apprenticeship programs for chefs and cooks in most provinces.
Chefs: Many colleges and private schools offer programs in food preparation, cooking, chef training, and culinary management. Graduates of these programs can also earn the Red Seal certification which allows you to work in other provinces without having to re-certify.
Higher professional certifications are available for those with extensive experience in the field. Professional designations such as these improve a chef’s chances of securing better paying positions in fine restaurants and large hotels.
Cooks: A high school diploma is often required for this career. To get the higher-skilled and higher paying jobs, cooks can complete an apprenticeship or attend a college or vocational school where cooking programs are offered. Graduates of these programs can also earn the Red Seal certification which allows you to work in other provinces without having to re-certify.
This occupation in not regulated in British Columbia
For information on voluntary certification in BC see the Industry Training Authority (ITA) website. Cooks with previous experience and training may be eligible to apply to the Industry Training Authority for:
Internationally Trained Chefs and Cooks
If you are certified as a chef in a foreign country, your credentials may be recognized in Canada.
You’ll find job advertisements in local newspapers, trade journals, and electronic sources, as well as through professional associations’ publications.
You can look at the Vancouver Sun & The Province at Vancouver Public Library for free. Check the job postings daily and the careers section in the Vancouver Sun on Wednesdays and Saturdays and in The Province on Sundays.
Job White Pages
- Available online or in print at the Central Library
NOTE: You can only access this database from the Central Library or VPL branch libraries. Access is NOT available from home or outside the Library.
Online Job Postings
Find jobs posted on a multitude of company career sites and job boards
Identifying the Right Position
When you browse job advertisements, you’ll find a range of different job titles that are relevant.
For chefs, look for these related job titles:
- Banquet Chef
- Corporate Chef
- Executive Chef
- Executive Sous-Chef
- Head Chef
- Master Chef
- Specialist Chef
- Supervising Chef
Source: NOC, 6321
For cooks, look for these related job titles:
- Apprentice Cook
- Banquet Cook
- Breakfast Cook
- Cafeteria Cook
- Camp Cook
- Caterer Cook
- Hospital Cook
- Licensed Cook
- Pastry Cook
- Pizza Cook
- Restaurant Cook
- Short Order Cook
Source: NOC, 6322
Creating a List of Potential Employers
You can use directories to produce lists of hotels in Vancouver or the Lower Mainland. Contact them directly to find out if they’re hiring. You can photocopy from the print directories at Central Library, or use the online directories from a computer connected to the internet.
- Business in Vancouver – Book of Lists
Also available Central Library, 338.9711 B97b
- Reference Canada
Click on “Start Search” beside Canadian Businesses, then select the “Advanced Search” button.
Select both “Keyword/SIC/NAICS” under Business Type and “City” under Geography.
In the top search box enter “[relevant term]” and click LOOKUP.
Select the appropriate headings.
Lower down, select the Province, choose the cities, and click the “View Results” button.
NOTE: You can access this database from a Library computer. If you are using a computer from outside the Library, you will need a Vancouver Public Library card to login to this database. After clicking on the database name, you will be asked to enter your library card number and PIN (usually last four digits of your telephone number).
Applying for a Job
In Canada, employers usually expect to receive a resume (curriculum vitae) and a cover letter that identifies the position you are applying for and summarizes your relevant experience.
Use the library catalogue to find books on writing resumes and cover letters specific to your industry.
To learn about applying for jobs in Canada, use the following pathfinders:
Getting Help from Industry Sources
Hospitality, tourism, and professional associations in BC and Canada provide assistance and information on training and certification.
- The British Columbia Chef’s Association
A volunteer association dedicated to the education of both junior members and upgrading the skills of regular members
- British Columbia Hotel Association (BCHA)
BCHA is for the interests of the Hotel Industry throughout British Columbia. The BCHA has approximately 600 hotel members and 200 associate members.
- The British Columbia Restaurant & Foodservices Association
BCRFA is the advocate for the restaurant and foodservice industry. The BCRFA represents more than 3,000 restaurant and foodservice businesses across BC.
- Canadian Culinary Federation (CCFCC)
Canada’s national association for chefs and cooks. See links to culinary training programs and other culinary associations.
- The Canadian Restaurant and Foodservices Association
The CRFA has more than 33,500 members across Canada. It provides news and resources related to Canada’s foodservice industry.
- Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council (CTHRC)
The CTHRC promotes professionalism throughout the sector and addresses key labour market issues.
Search the Vancouver Public Library catalogue for journals related to your profession. Examples at the Central Library:
- Chef’s Quarterly (The British Columbia Chef’s Association)